antiverseThe Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the earliest known periods of the universe and its subsequent large-scale evolution. It states that the Universe was in a very high density state and then expanded.  The Sillycats antiverse model is a version that explains the arrow of time, matter/antimatter asymmetry, and the conservation of energy in the origin of the big bang.


The earliest and most direct observational evidence of the validity of the theory are the expansion of the Universe according to Hubble’s law (as indicated by the redshifts of galaxies), discovery and measurement of the cosmic microwave background and the relative abundances of light elements produced by Big Bang nucleosynthesis. More recent evidence includes observations of galaxy formation and evolution, and the distribution of large-scale cosmic structures. These are sometimes called the “four pillars” of the Big Bang theory.

Age of the Universe

The age of universe, 13.7 billion years, as estimated from the Hubble expansion and the CMB is now in good agreement with other estimates using the ages of the oldest stars, both as measured by applying the theory of stellar evolution to globular clusters and through radiometric dating of individual Population II stars.


Matter/Antimatter asymmetry. It is not yet understood why the Universe has more matter than antimatter. It is generally assumed that when the Universe was young and very hot, it was in statistical equilibrium and contained equal numbers of baryons and antibaryons. However, observations suggest that the Universe, including its most distant parts, is made almost entirely of matter.

Arrow of Time & Speed of Light. Not usually brought up as a topic but the arrow of time and the original of the speed of light are assumed as determined by the initial boundary conditions of the origin of the univers.

There other issues such as the origin and nature of dark energy and dark matter that are unanswered problems.

Religion and Philosophy

As a description of the origin of the Universe, the Big Bang has significant bearing on religion and philosophy. As a result, it has become one of the liveliest areas in the discourse between science and religion. Some believe the Big Bang implies a creator, and some see its mention in their holy books, while others argue that Big Bang cosmology makes the notion of a creator superfluous.

The Sillycats Model

The antiverse model, first proposed by as a toy model of the universe in 2012,  supposes that there was a sudden expansion into the universe and the antiverse, which were sent in opposite directions in time. The universe propagates forward in time and the antiverse propagates backward in time, conserving both momentum and zero total energy.

The momentum of the universe in time is conserved, and determines the ultimate speed of light. It is opposite of the momentum of the antiverse traveling in the opposite direction in time. The antiverse and the universe are being driven appart by a field of dark energy many times the mass of the universe and antiverse.

As a result the arrow of time points in one direction in the universe and in the opposite direction in the antiverse. The speed of light is thus determined by the speed of the universe in time. The universe was made up originally of matter, and the antiverse was made up originally of antimatter.

The universe and the antiverse are indistinguishable in that their development is each constrained to one direction in time. An observer in the negative energy, antimatter universe propagating in the negative time direction sees the same surroundings as an observer in a positive energy, matter dominated universe propagating in the positive time direction.

This model assumes to explain the baryon (matter/antimatter) asymmetry, the arrow of time, and the conservation of energy in the origin of the universe.